Robert Indiana is an American painter, sculptor and graphic artist. His original name was Robert Clarke, but he adopted the name of his native state as his own. He studied at the Herron School of Art in Indianapolis and then at the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute in Utica, New York. From there he went to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago where he received a degree in 1953 and won a travelling fellowship to Europe. In 1954, he attended Edinburgh University and Edinburgh College of Art in Scotland. He is regarded as one of the leading American Pop artists, and although he has done some figurative paintings he is best known for pictures involving geometric shapes emblazoned with letterings and signs. His vivid colours often create effects of visual ambiguity reminiscent of those of Op art. In his paintings and constructions he has given new meaning to such basic words as ‘Eat’, ‘Die’, and ‘Love’. Using them in bold letters in vivid colours, he has enticed his viewers to look at the commonplace from a new perspective. One indication of his success was the appearance of his immensely popular multi-coloured ‘Love’ on a United States postage stamp in 1973.
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